Experts Explain Exosomes

From exosomes to insight!

Exosomes Experts Explain

From exosomes to insight!

What are extracellular vesicles?

Extracellular vesicles (EVs) comprise a heterogeneous population of membrane vesicles with different sizes and origins. EVs can be classified into three distinct classes: large extracellular vesicles, microvesicles, and exosomes. Large extracellular vesicles, such as oncosomes and apoptotic bodies, have a diameter that varies from 800 nm to 5 μm, and they originate from the remodeling of the plasma membrane, usually associated to pathological states (e.g., late-stage cancer). Microvesicles are formed by budding of the cell plasma membrane, their size varies between 150 nm and 1 μm, and they often are referred to as microparticles or shedding vesicles.

What are exosomes?

Exosomes are vesicles of 30–150 nm in diameter, and they are secreted from nearly every cell type of the body. They contain significant molecular constituents – including proteins, lipids and nucleic acids from their parent cell.

Why study exosomes? / What do they tell us?

Exosomes have been found in many body fluids, including blood, saliva, cerebrospinal fluid, and urine. However, most research efforts with diagnostic aims have been performed in plasma and serum as these body fluids are easily accessible, abundant and highly informative.  Disease-Derived exosomes carry many molecules, including proteins, DNA, and RNA. In recent years, exosome DNAs and exosome RNAs have been the objective of intense research efforts to identify and validate novel diagnostic signatures for the development of a new class of non-invasive diagnostic assays.

Exosome as a powerful new class of non-invasive diagnostic assays.

In cancer and other diseases, altered expression of exosomal nucleic acids has been reported, suggesting that they may serve as disease biomarkers. This important feature, along with their high abundance and stability, makes them potential non-invasive, blood-based biomarkers that can shed light on early disease onset and development, therapy response, and mechanisms of drug resistance.

What are extracellular vesicles?

Extracellular vesicles (EVs) comprise a heterogeneous population of membrane vesicles with different sizes and origins. EVs can be classified into three distinct classes: large extracellular vesicles, microvesicles, and exosomes. Large extracellular vesicles, such as oncosomes and apoptotic bodies, have a diameter that varies from 800 nm to 5 μm, and they originate from the remodeling of the plasma membrane, usually associated to pathological states (e.g., late-stage cancer). Microvesicles are formed by budding of the cell plasma membrane, their size varies between 150 nm and 1 μm, and they often are referred to as microparticles or shedding vesicles.

What are exosomes?

Exosomes are vesicles of 30–150 nm in diameter, and they are secreted from nearly every cell type of the body. They contain significant molecular constituents – including proteins, lipids and nucleic acids from their parent cell.

Why study exosomes? / What do they tell us?

Exosomes have been found in many body fluids, including blood, saliva, cerebrospinal fluid, and urine. However, most research efforts with diagnostic aims have been performed in plasma and serum as these body fluids are easily accessible, abundant and highly informative.  Disease-Derived exosomes carry many molecules, including proteins, DNA, and RNA. In recent years, exosome DNAs and exosome RNAs have been the objective of intense research efforts to identify and validate novel diagnostic signatures for the development of a new class of non-invasive diagnostic assays.

Exosome as a powerful new class of non-invasive diagnostic assays.

In cancer and other diseases, altered expression of exosomal nucleic acids has been reported, suggesting that they may serve as disease biomarkers. This important feature, along with their high abundance and stability, makes them potential non-invasive, blood-based biomarkers that can shed light on early disease onset and development, therapy response, and mechanisms of drug resistance.